Diabetes: Function, Symptoms and diagnosis


Diabetes is a metabolic disease which occurs in the human body due to high blood glucose. This disease occurs, because insulin production in human body becomes inadequate or body cells stop responding to insulin. The pancreas is the organ that is responsible for this disease, because the required amount of insulin is supplied by the pancreas, which further handled the glucose level in the body. This is the whole process to control the glucose level in the body. Frequent urination, weight loss


The pancreas is the organ that controls the sugar level in the body. It is to be found in the digestive system and located at the back of the stomach and next to the duodenum. Pancreas performs a dual function. An Islet that exists in the “sea” of exocrine tissue, is the land mass of cells that release insulin and glucagon hormones into the blood to control blood sugar levels. Further, insulin controls the glucose level in the body so that the rate of glucose production should be level by the rate used by cells. These are responsible for regulating blood glucose levels as part of metabolism, intense Hunger are some of diabetes symptoms, that gives hint about the disease

2Symptoms of diabetes

As insulin does not work properly in the body, cells are not getting glucose and energy because of weak insulin hormones. Due to this energy related symptoms will be found in diabetic patient. They are like

1.Frequent urination: You may have a frequent urination problem as compared to normal days. Because of too much sugar level in your blood, a person may go to the toilet on frequent manner. Insulin is responsible to level the rate of glucose in the blood. If your insulin is unproductive, then your kidneys cannot filter the glucose back into the blood. The kidneys will take water from your blood in order to dilute the glucose – which in turn fills up your bladder.
2.Weight loss: As cells are not getting glucose, due to this energy level goes down. By this, the body muscle tissue and fat will be broken down for energy and body will start loosing weight.
3.The Smell of acetone: You will discover that the breath of a diabetic person smells like a distinct “acetone”. It smells like rotten fruits.
4.Intense Hunger: Glucose plays a pivotal role to complete energy level in the body. As insulin is not working properly, due to that, cells are not getting glucose and is getting out of the body through urine. By this, the body is not getting energy and your body need more energy to get rid of hunger.
5.Increased fatigue: Glucose gives energy to the body. In diabetic patients insulin stop working properly, due to this glucose will not be entering your cells. By this, cells will not get the energy and this will make you feel tired and restless.
6.Inconsistent thirst: Due to frequent urination you will lose more water from the body. For this you need more water to cover up the required quantity in the body.

Apart from the ones mentioned above, the list of other symptoms of diabetes is polydispia, irritability, weight fluctuation, infections, slow healing of wounds, tingling or numbness in your hands or feet, dry and itchy skin, etc. These symptoms should be noted and not be ignored.

3Diagnosis of diabetes

Symptoms are the basic thing from which a person may get the idea that there is some problem with the body. Different type of tests are available for diagnosis of diabetes. Including blood test, urine test, sugar test all are there for the diagnosis of diabetes.

In the blood test, doctors check for Fasting Plasma Glucose test. They check for the FPG level of blood after 8 hours of fasting. Then choose Glycosylated hemoglobin test in which average blood glucose level is checked for last 2-3 months. Then, go for Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing (OGTT), in this they check the concentrated glucose solution in the body. In urine test, Doctors take a sample of urine and check the ketone level.

This is a very vast topic for discussion and to collect the information. You can also go to other online sites to get more information about the diabetes, reasons of diabetes, symptoms, diagnosis etc.

By: Shaveta Kandhari